Transportation Demand Management (TDM)
What are Transportation Demand Management Programs?
Congested streets and roadways result when too many people want to drive on the same routes at the same time, particularly during peak commute hours or special events. The term "demand" refers to the amount of street/road use during a given time period. Transportation Demand Management (TDM) programs focus on changing or reducing travel demand, particularly at peak commute hours, instead of increasing roadway supply. Thus, TDM makes more efficient use of the current roadway system. With the right incentives (or disincentives) travelers may be influenced to use transportation systems in a way that contributes less to congestion. In fact, research around the country indicates that well-designed TDM programs can reduce vehicle trips by as much as 30 or 40 percent.
Travelers base their travel choices on a number of important motivators including the desire to save time and money, to reduce stress or to improve convenience. At least some of these motivations must be addressed to encourage a change in habits. Some of the most promising TDM programs emphasize coordination with local employers on measures such as car or vanpooling programs, bus pass subsidies, alternative work schedules, telecommuting options and parking management. Studies also indicate that congestion pricing is an especially effective approach, which should gain favor as congestion worsens and new variations on the concept are developed. The sections below describe and provide examples for various types of TDM strategies.
General Guidebooks and Resources
- Demand Management: A Primer for Transportation Planners and Engineers, Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) - General information on Washington's demand management programs
- Managing Demand, Puget Sound Regional Council (PSRC) - Includes link to the multi-pronged Regional TDM Action Plan, 2013 - 2018
- Travel Demand Management, U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration - Includes links to resources and toolbox
- Integrating Demand Management into the Transportation Planning Process: A Desk Reference, FHWA, 08/2012 - Discusses integration at the state, regional, local and corridor level. Discusses effectiveness of different strategies, and provides tools for evaluating effectiveness
- Mitigating Traffic Congestion: The Role of Demand-Side Strategies, The Association for Commuter Transportation for U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, 10/2004 - Provides a framework for understanding demand-side strategies, and case studies illustrating a variety of TDM strategies
- Online TDM Encyclopedia, Transport Policy Institute, Victoria, B.C. Canada, 03/2013 - Very comprehensive, up-to-date resource on transportation demand management strategies, including information on TDM planning, evaluation and implementation
- National TDM and Telework Clearinghouse, Center for Urban Transportation at the University of South Florida - Useful page includes a glossary, loads of resources organized by category, and a helpdesk where users can post questions or view a searchable archive of answers
- TDM Handbooks and Manuals, National TDM and Telework Clearinghouse, Center for Urban Transportation at the University of South Florida - Useful collection from a number of sources
- Policy and Guidance, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, State and Local Transportation Resources - Organized by category
Articles and Reports
- Calculate Your Commute, King County, WA - Tool for estimating the costs of car commuting
- Cost of Congestion, Portland-Metro, Portland Metro, 02/10/2006 - Examines relationship between investing in transportation and the economy
- Overview of Travel Demand Management Measures, Federal Highway Administration and the Federal Transit Administration, 01/1994
- Transportation Management Programs: An Institutional Framework for Implementing TDM, Victoria Transport Policy Institute, Victoria, B.C. Canada, updated 12/10/2012 - Discusses different types of transportation management programs, how they are organized and funded, and their role in implementing TDM strategies
- Transportation Demand Management Strategies for Schools Phase II Report: Reducing Auto Congestion around Schools (), by Daniel Carlson, Deric Gruen, Jennifer Thacker of the Washington State Transportation Center (UW) for the Washington State Department of Transportation, 01/2009
- Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes: Chapter 19: Employer and Institutional TDM Strategies, Transportation Cooperative Research Program Report 95, Transportation Research Board, 2010 - Report looks at results and experience of TDM measures from across the U.S. to evaluate the relative importance of particular categories of transportation demand management (TDM) strategies, such as support versus incentives, as well as the particular strategies themselves, such as transit subsidy versus a high-occupancy vehicle parking discount
- Urban Mobility Information, Texas Transportation Institute - Includes link to a number of nationwide reports including the 2011 Congested Corridors Report, and 2012 Annual Urban Mobility Report. Also see Mobility Monitoring in Small to Medium-Sized Communities
Employer-Based Transportation Programs
Employer-based programs can be among the most effective of transportation demand management (TDM) programs, in part because the program can be tailored to the commute needs of employees at their specific place of work. Employers can provide opportunities for employees to escape a congested commute through options such as alternative work schedules or telecommuting.
Employers are also in a position to influence employee commute choices with incentives (such as a subsidized bus pass) or even by removing/reducing subsidies that encourage drive-alone commutes (such as the provision of unlimited free parking). Research indicates that financial incentives and disincentives such as these are particularly effective commute trip reduction measures. Numerous studies conclude that parking charges, telecommuting, flexible work hour provisions including compressed work weeks, guaranteed ride home programs, and incentives for biking and walking all can be effective in reducing drive alone commuting. In addition, programs that encourage carpooling and vanpooling have proven successful in a number of localities, particularly if vans are provided.
Washington State's Commute Trip Reduction Program
Washington State's Commute Trip Reduction (CTR) Program, in effect since 1991, is the first statewide employer-based transportation demand management program in the country. The goals of the program are to improve transportation system efficiency, improve air quality, and to conserve energy through employer-based programs that encourage employees to find alternatives to drive-alone commuting. The success of the program depends on collaboration between local governments, employers and the Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT).
The Legislature passed the Commute Trip Reduction (CTR) Efficiency Act (ESSB 6566) () during the 2006 session based on recommendations from the CTR Task Force 2005 Report to the Washington State Legislature (). The Act requires local governments that meet certain congestion-related criteria to adopt CTR plans and ordinances for major employers (over 100 employees) in the affected urban growth area (UGA). WSDOT has posted a list of jurisdictions required to adopt CTR plans and ordinances. WAC 468-63-040 states the basic requirements for local commute trip reduction plans.
ESSB 6566 shifted the CTR program focus from the ten most populous counties to those UGAs that contain the most congested state highways. Other major changes included 1) establishing a state CTR planning framework that will better integrate with local, regional and state land use planning and investment, 2) providing for local designation of "growth and transportation efficiency centers" that would receive priority in regional funding and for state competitive grants, and 3) streamlining the CTR Task Force into a smaller, more policy-oriented CTR Board. The following resources provide more information about Washington's CTR program:
Commute Trip Reduction Programs and Codes
- Bellevue Transportation Choices: Transportation Demand Management - Includes link to Citywide Transportation Demand Management Plan
- King County
- Kitsap County Code Ch. 20.08 - Commute Trip Reduction
- Renton Municipal Code Title X, Ch. 13 - Commute Trip Reduction
- Snohomish County Department of Public Works Rule 4228 () - Transportation Demand Management (TDM) for Development
- Spokane County
- Tumwater Municipal Code Ch. 16.34 - Commute Trip Reduction
- Alexandria, VA Local Motion - Interesting programs including bikeshare, and a van start/van save program that provides temporary funding to get a van pool going or to help it through temporary loss of passengers
- Santa Barbara County, CA 2014 Commuter Benefits - Employees incentives to participate in commute programs
- Trip Reduction Ordinances (TRO) - Codes of cities and counties in AZ, CA, WA, and other states, Best Work Places for Commuters Website, University of Southern Florida Center for Urban Transportation Research, Updated 01/10/2014
Commuter Trip Resources
Work Schedule Changes
Flexible work schedules allow employees to commute to work at less congested times of the day and to make schedule adjustments to better fit their lifestyles. Flextime, compressed work week, staggered shifts, and job-sharing are types of alternative schedules discussed in materials in this section.
- Alternative Work Schedules: Flextime, Compressed Work Week, Staggered Shifts, Victoria Transportation Policy Institute, updated 01/26/2010
- Boosting Morale, Performance and Savings Via Compressed Work Weeks, National Center for Transit Research (NCTR) at the University of South Florida - A Netconference session, 06/24/2010
- Flexible Schedules - Compressed Work Weeks, Washington State Department of Transportation - Explanation and glossary: Concepts & terms
- Handbook on Alternative Work Schedules, U.S. Office of Personnel Management - Handbook developed for federal agencies.
- Work Hours: Flexible Schedules, U.S. Department of Labor - Series of articles and reports
- Workplace Flexibility, and Workplace Flexibility Options at a Glance, Emory University - Useful overview of flexible work hours, compressed work week, Shift flexibility, job sharing and telecommute schedule options; also very useful resource links
Timely information about current traffic conditions can alert commuters and divert some trips away from developing bottlenecks, where traffic accidents or other incidents are causing delays.
- Managing Demand Through Travel Information Services,Federal Highway Administration - Good overview. This brochure highlights the opportunities and benefits for using traveler information services to manage demand during periods of congestion such as commute periods, special events, and emergencies. It highlights examples of traveler information systems in use around the country and overseas
- Real Time Traveler Information, Links to useful Federal Highway Administration publications
- 511 SF Bay, San Francisco Bay Area partnership between Metropolitan Transportation Commission, the California Highway Patrol (CHP), and the California DOT - One-stop, toll-free phone and Internet service that provides real-time traffic and parking information, and information about rideshare, transit, bike routes, and other alternatives
- Washington State Traveler Information and Travel Alerts, Washington State Department of Transportation - Provides real-time information about traffic conditions allowing drivers to choose other routes or schedules
Sports events, street fairs, political demonstrations, promotional events or other special events can temporarily overwhelm streets and other transportation facilities. Traffic incidents and road construction projects can create lengthy traffic delays. Advance planning, mitigation programs and effective public notice can ease congestion and allow motorists to choose alternate routes.
- Construction Traffic Planning, Washington State Department of Transportation - Identifies hot spots and Includes construction closure information
- Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation
- Special Event Transport Management Transportation Management During Sport and Cultural Events, Construction. Projects and Emergencies, TDM Encyclopedia, Victoria Transport Policy Institute, updated 02/18/2011
- Traffic Incident Management, Emergency Transportation Operations, and Traffic Management for Planned Special Events, Federal Highway Administration - Includes links to publications and tools for assessing incident response programs, quick clearance best practices, and model procedures guides
- TravelSmart Special Events Planning Resource Kit () - Useful guide for planning and preparing to handle a large special event. Includes some brief case studies describing situations and solutions, and also helpful checklists.
Congestion Pricing Policies
Congestion pricing, also called value pricing, is a strategy where transportation system users are charged for their use of transportation facilities. Congestion pricing differs from the type of road and bridge tolls that have been used for years in this country to raise revenues to pay for new roads, bridges or other transportation facilities. Instead, congestion pricing is used to manage demand, and to reduce vehicle emissions and gas consumption related to idling engines.
A widely discussed approach is to impose fees on drivers in congested areas that may vary depending on time of day, distance traveled, number of vehicle occupants, or location. Similar to the concept of "early bird" dining specials, "red-eye" or off-peak flights, or matinee movie shows, this strategy can encourage those travelers who have flexibility to shift trips to less congested times or routes. A second basic approach, which is gaining attention, is to offer motorists the opportunity to pay a premium for travel via a faster, less congested lane. Although viewed by some critics as catering to the well-heeled, U.S. pilot programs indicate that motorists of all income levels will take advantage of the fast lane, when pressed for time. Delays associated with traditional toll booths can obviously be counterproductive. However, prepayment approaches and new technology to monitor usage, can now be used to more efficiently assess fees.
The Value Pricing Pilot (VPP) program, initially authorized in the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) as the Congestion Pricing Pilot Program, was renewed with the passage of the Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU). This program encourages implementation and evaluation of value pricing pilot projects to manage congestion on highways through tolling and other pricing mechanisms. The Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century (MAP-21) Act did not authorize additional funds after FY2012 for the discretionary grant component of the Value Pricing Pilot Program (VPPP). However, FHWA's may still enter into cooperative agreements for implementation of projects that require tolling authority under this program.
- Congestion Pricing: A Primer: Overview (), Federal Highway Administration, 10/2008 - Introduces various aspects of congestion pricing to decision-makers and transportation professionals and presents underlying rationale
- Economics: Pricing, Demand, and Economic Efficiency - A Primer (), Federal Highway Administration, 11/2008 - This primer describes the underlying economic rationale for congestion pricing and how it can be used to promote economic efficiency
- Road Pricing Overview, Federal Highway Administration - Provides a clear, brief overview of tolling and pricing concepts. Includes links to information about federal tolling and pricing programs available under Title 23 of the United States Code (23 U.S.C.). Also includes links to study reports, and tools, and other resources.
- Road Pricing: Overcoming the Challenges of Congestion Pricing, FHWA series of 16 webinars on various aspects of road pricing presented between 03/30/2011 - 12/17/2013
- Road Pricing Congestion Pricing, Value Pricing, Toll Roads and HOT Lanes, Victoria Transport Policy Institute, updated 11/05/2013 - Useful overview of types of congestion pricing including distance-based pricing, fee collection methods, benefits of various approaches, best practices, and case studies
- Using Pricing to Reduce Traffic Congestion: A CBO (Congressional Budget Office) Study (), 03/2009 - Good overview, information about types of congestion pricing, notation of benefits, evaluation, and briefs on 3 case studies
Lessons from Specific Locales
- Congestion Relief Analysis For the Central Puget Sound, Spokane & Vancouver Urban Areas (), WSDOT, 03/2006 - This study documents the results of computer modeling of a variety of automobile, high-occupancy vehicle (HOV),transit, transportation pricing, and travel demand management scenarios to obtain congestion relief. Congestion pricing holds particular promise.
- Destination 2030 - Taking An Alternative Route (), Washington State Transportation Center for King County, 03/05/2007 - Report describing and recommending a transportation improvement fee paid by roadway users that would vary according to congestion levels. Revenues would be used for system improvements which must benefit the users paying the fees.
- The Impacts of Tolling on Low-income Persons in the Puget Sound Region, Robert Plotnick, Jennifer Romich, Jennifer Thacker, Washington State Transportation Center, University of Washington, 04/2009
- London Congestion Pricing: Implications for Other Cities, by Todd Litman, Victoria Transport Policy Institute, 11/24/2011 - London requires drivers to pay £8 per day if they wish to drive in central London during peak hours. Revenues go to increased transit service, and Congestion Charging, Transport for London - London's information website on the system.
- Task A-2: Implementation and Management of Electronic Roadway Tolling: Lessons from Successful Cases (), Rebecca Kalauskas, Brian D. Taylor, Hiroyuki Iseki, Institute of Transportation Studies University of California, Berkeley, 01/2009
- Traffic Choices Study: Summary Report (), Puget Sound Regional Council, 2008 - This federally funded pilot project tests the effects of pricing on residents travel behavior.
- Value Pricing Pilot Program: Lessons Learned Final Report (), Federal Highway Administration, 08/2008 - Comprehensive report provides a summary of FHA Congestion and Value Pricing Pilot Programs from 1991 through 2006, and reports on lessons learned.
Other Studies and Reports
- Priced Managed Lane Guide, Federal Highway Administration, 2013 - This Guide is intended to be a comprehensive source of collective experience gained from priced managed lanes implemented in the United States through 2012. This guide also updates the Federal Highway Administration's (FHWA) 2003 Guide for HOT Lane Development drawing on newer examples
- Improving Our Understanding of How Highway Congestion and Pricing Affect Travel Demand (), prepared by Parsons Brinckerhoff for the Strategic Highways Research Program, Transportation Research Board, 2013 - This technical report explores the effect on demand and route choice of demographic characteristics, car occupancy, value of travel time, value of travel time reliability, situational variability, and an observed toll aversion bias. It provides mathematical descriptions of the full range of highway user behavioral responses to these variables for modeling purposes
- NCHRP Synthesis 377: Compilation of Public Opinion Data on Tolls and Road Pricing (), Transportation Research Board, for the National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP), 2008 - This report compiles and analyzes public opinion on tolling and road pricing across the United States and internationally from existing public opinion research
- The Political Calculus of Congestion Pricing (), David King, Michael Manville, Donald Shoup, Transport Policy, Vol. 14, 2007 - Congestion pricing on freeways will have the greatest chance of political success if the revenue is earmarked for cities on those freeways
- Tolling and Pricing Program - Federal Highway Administration's home page on congestion pricing with links to programs, publications, and resources
- Congestion Pricing - State and Local Policy Program at the Hubert H. Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs - The Congestion Pricing website is hosted by the State and Local Policy Program at the University of Minnesota. It provides users information on the state of practice in value pricing and specific pricing projects in the U.S. and internationally. Links to other congestion pricing sites are also available on this site.
- Managed Lanes - Hosted by the Texas Transportation Institute, the website provides information on managed lanes across the United States, including managed lanes projects, ongoing and completed research, a glossary and other resources.