Farmland Preservation Techniques and Sustainable Agriculture
Introduction - Why Preserve Farmland?
This page contains information on farmland preservation programs and tools for retaining and protecting agricultural lands.
There are many important reasons to preserve farmland in Washington State:
- Farmland is a finite natural resource because areas with prime agricultural soils are limited.
- Agriculture is an important part of Washington State's economy - with a substantial market value; it provides jobs (not just on farms, but also in food processing and related industries), and it attracts tourists for its scenic character.
- Growing food locally helps to meet sustainable development goals.
- There are many intangible benefits associated with farmland, including aesthetic, open space, and sense of place.
- Farming is part of the rural lifestyle and is a central part of Washington State's heritage.
- Farmland offers environmental benefits, including wildlife habitat and the potential for groundwater recharge.
- In terms of the cost of public services, farmlands, like other resource lands, more than pay for the community services they require.
- Washington farmland is being converted rapidly to other uses. There is growth and redevelopment pressure for other, more profitable, uses.
- In Washington, communities are required by the Growth Management Act to protect resource lands, including farmland.
For more on this topic, see the Fact Sheet: "Why Save Farmland?" (), by American Farmland Trust, 01/2003 - Useful general background on farmland preservation.
General Links on Farmland Preservation and Sustainable Agriculture
This section includes some of the key resources and organizations involved in farmland preservation.
- American Farmland Trust - National organization that promotes farmland preservation, healthy farming practices, and supports farms and farmers
- Farm Foundation - Provides information on economic and public policy issues for agriculture, food systems, and rural regions
- Washington Office of Farmland Conservation, Washington State Conservation Commission - See linksto reports
- Center for Sustaining Agriculture and Natural Resources (CSANR), Washington State University - Develops innovative approaches to agricultural sustainability through research and educational programs
- Agricultural Land Conservation Tools, Florida Planning Toolbox - Includes information on agricultural zoning, transfer of development rights, purchase of development rights, and more
- U.S. Department of Agriculture Sustainability in Agriculture - Access to useful information on this topic
- Washington Sustainable Food & Farming Network - Grassroots, statewide advocacy organization for sustainable agriculture and family farms in Washington State
Reports, Studies, and Articles
- Washington State Farmland Preservation Indicators, Measuring Progress (), Office of Farmland Preservation, Washington State Conservation Commission, 12/2009
- Land Use and Farmland Conversion, University of California Agricultural Issues Center (AIC) - Includes information on agricultural easement programs, reports on farmland in California, and other articles and working papers
- Washington Conservation Incentives Project: Report to the Puget Sound Action Team, American Farmlands Trust, 2007
- Discussion Paper on the Impact of Environmental Regulation on Washington Agriculture: Challenges and Opportunities (), by Don Stuart, American Farmland Trust, 10/2008
- Food & Farmland, Planners Web, Planning Commissioners Journal (Articles available for purchase or through MRSC Library Loan)
- Preservation of Agricultural Lands Through Land Use Planning Tools and Techniques (), by Elisa Paster, Natural Resources Journal, Winter 2004 - How land use planning can be used to help save agricultural lands
- Sustaining Farms on the Urban Edge, American Farmland Trust, 01/2009 - Results of 15 county-level case studies
State Farmland Programs
Local Farmland Preservation Programs
This section contains links to city and county farmland protection programs and includes reports on progress.
- Bainbridge Island Mayor’s 90 Day Farmland Committee, Initial Recommendations (), 03/03/2008 - Recommendations for managing the City’s farm properties and for supporting the continuation of farming on Bainbridge Island
- Clallam County - Farmland Preservation Strategies Report, 2008
- Clark County - Agricultural Preservation Strategies Report, 03/2009
- Jefferson County - Farmer Survey 2012 Report () - Report of county ad hoc committee Citizens for Local Food (CLF)
- King County Agriculture Program - King County programs related to agriculture
- Pierce County - Preserving Farmland and Farmers, Pierce County Agriculture Strategic Plan, Summary Report ( 13 MB), by Barney & Worth, Inc. and Globalwise, Inc., 01/2006
- Skagit County - Farmland Legacy Program - County initiative that purchases agricultural easements
- Snohomish County Focus on Farming - Information for and about Snohomish County's agricultural industry and includes links to farmland reports
- Thurston County - Agricultural Preservation
- Whatcom County Agricultural Program - Includes Agricultural Strategic Plan and Agricultural Purchase of Development Rights (PDR) Program
Transfer of Development Rights (TDR)
Transfer of development rights (TDR) programs allow landowners to transfer the right to develop one parcel of land to a different parcel of land. In the context of farmland protection, TDRs are used to shift development from agricultural areas to designated growth zones closer to municipal services. For a general overview of this topic, see Transfer of Development Rights Fact Sheet, () American Farmland Trust, 2008. The Growth Management Act requires a TDR or purchase of development rights (PDR) program for designated agricultural land of long-term significance located in the urban growth area (RCW 36.70A.060(4)). See below for more information on PDR programs.
Right-to-farm laws were enacted to protect agricultural operations within a state or county by providing owners with a defense against potential nuisance suits that might be brought against the farm. Washington's right-to-farm statute is RCW 7.48.300.
- Benton County Code Ch. 14.05 () - Right to Farm
- Chelan County Code of the West () - Stevens County has also adopted this code
- Franklin County Code of the West - Agriculture
- Pierce County Code Ch. 18I.35 - Right to Farm Protections, in Title 18I () - Development Regulations - Natural Resource Lands
- Skamania County Code Ch. 6.12 - Right to Farm, in Title 6
- Stanwood Municipal Code Ch. 17.102 - Right-to-Farm Registration
- County Right-to-Farm Ordinances in California: An Assessment of Impact and Effectiveness (), Matthew Wacker, Alvin D. Sokolow, and Rachel Elkins, University of California Agricultural Issues Center, 05/2001
- Davis, CA Municipal Code Ch. 40A - Right to Farm and Farmland Preservation - Davis is known for its strong local farmland preservation program
- Right-to-Farm Laws, Fact Sheet (), American Farmland Trust
Agricultural zoning refers to local zoning ordinances that support and protect farming by stabilizing the agricultural land base. Agricultural zones are designated in areas where farming is the desired land use, generally on the basis of soil quality as well as other locational factors. Forms of agricultural zoning include exclusive agricultural zoning, large lot size zoning, and sliding-scale zoning (under these ordinances, the number of dwellings permitted varies with the size of the tract).
Washington Examples of Agricultural Zoning
- Douglas County Code Ch. 18.36 - AC-10 Commercial Agriculture District and Ch. 18.40 - A-D Dryland Agriculture District
- Franklin County Code Ch. 17.10 - AP-20 Agricultural Production Zone and Ch. 17.12 - AP-40 Agricultural Production Zone
- Marysville Municipal Code Ch. 22C.050 - Small Farms Overlay Zone
- Puyallup Municipal Code Ch. 20.50 - Agriculture Overlay Zone
- Thurston County Code Ch. 20.08A - Long-Term Agricultural District (LTA)
- Whatcom County Code Ch. 20.38 - Agriculture Protection Overlay and Ch. 20.40 - Agriculture (AG) District
- Yakima County Code Ch. 15.21 - Agriculture (AG) Zoning District
Current Use Taxation
The Washington Open Space Taxation Act (Ch. 84.34 RCW), enacted in 1970, allows property owners to have open space, farm and agricultural lands, and timberlands valued at their current use rather than their highest and best use. Application for current use assessment is generally made to the county assessor.
Purchase of Development Rights (PDR) and Agricultural Conservation Easements
Purchase of development rights (PDR) is a program that allows property owners to voluntarily sell the development rights to their land at fair market value in return for deeding a permanent conservation easement held by a land trust or local government. An agricultural conservation easement is a voluntary, legally recorded, agreement between a landowner and a qualified conservation organization, often a land trust, which restricts land to agricultural and open space uses. Property development rights are then extinguished and cannot be sold or transferred to another entity.
Purchase of Development Rights (PDR)
Agricultural Conservation Easements
- Agricultural Conservation Easements Factsheet, () American Farmland Trust, 01/2004 - Older but still useful
- A National View of Agricultural Easement Programs, American Farmland Trust - Series of reports on agricultural easement programs
- Agricultural Land Conservation Easements FAQ, California Department of Conservation
- Common Questions on Conservation Easements, by Jeff Jones et al., Center for Collaborative Conservation, Colorado State University, 09/2009
- Purchase of Agricultural Conservation Easements Fact Sheet, () American Farmland Trust, 05/2005
- Agricultural Conservation Easements, Pennsylvania Farmland Preservation Association
- Thurston County - The Effect of Conservation Easements on Real Property Market Value - Frequently Asked Questions
Farmland Mitigation Ordinances and Policies
Farmland mitigation programs are somewhat similar in concept to wetlands mitigation. They involve protecting farmland by providing equivalent farm acreage elsewhere when agricultural land is converted to other uses, or paying a fee when farmland is converted to other uses. One of the first farmland mitigation programs was enacted in Davis, California in 1995. This ordinance requires developers to permanently protect one acre of farmland for every acre of agricultural land they convert to other uses. Developers can place an agricultural conservation easement on farmland in another part of the city or pay a fee to satisfy mitigation.
Farmland Preservation Funding
- Farmland Preservation Grants, Washington Wildlife Recreation Program (WWRP) - Administered by the Washington State Recreation and Conservation Office. Grants are available to help cities and counties preserve economically viable farmlands in Washington and to enhance ecological functions on these lands.
- Grants, Washington Office of Farmland Preservation - Information on results of 2008 program to assist counties with farmland preservation programs; not active at this time (2013)
- Grants, USDA Rural Development - Rural development grant assistance; emphasis on grants to support farmers
- Loans, USDA Rural Development - Grant assistance; emphasis on loans to support farmers
Agricultural Land Trusts
An agricultural land trust is a nonprofit organization whose primary purpose is the preservation of undeveloped land of agricultural value to the community. A land trust accepts donations of agricultural conservation easements, gifts of land, and may purchase easements or land with donated funds. A land trust is a private sector form of land conservation. This section includes links to some of the land trusts active in Washington.
Special Uses - Wineries - Land Use Regulations and Tourism
Washington is the second largest wine producer in the U.S., and the state had more than 650 wineries and more than 350 wine grape growers in 2010. Counties and cities regulate wineries and associated facilities in their land use regulations, and local governments are also interested in the economic development and tourism potential of the wine industry.